Usually, the history of HIV testing policy includes commitments that began when evidence of the management of AIDS clinical and public health problems was still very uncertain. The conventional narrative argues that public health officials were slowly convinced by evidence that informed written consent hindered the introduction of large-scale HIV testing, a process that peaked in 2006, when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued recommendations for an opt-out approach without written consent. Those who objected to this opt-out approach were equally certain that the evidence did not support the assertion that informed written consent was an obstacle to sound public health practice. But over time, the overwhelming evidence, coupled with political and funding changes, convinced many people who had committed themselves most deeply to written consent. But the entrenched opposition has not disappeared. There is a rich literature on the history of scientific controversies, which attempts to explain how they are born, persist and will be resolved over time.47 This literature shows that only part of the story is told by narratives that, following the victory of the evidence in the face of uncertainty or the emergence of new evidence, suggest careful consideration of scientific controversies.48 Considering that careful examination of scientific controversies indicates that careful examination of scientific controversies indicates that careful consideration of scientific controversies indicates that careful consideration of scientific controversies indicates that careful consideration of scientific controversies scientific controversies suggest it, as this suggests that careful consideration of scientific controversies suggests that the abrupt examination of scientific controversies suggests that the abrupt study of scientific controversies suggests that this is the result of such conflicts as a result of the victory of the evidence in the face of uncertainty or because of the existence of new evidence48. Controversies suggest that careful consideration of scientific controversies suggests that careful study of scientific controversies suggests that the abrupt study of scientific controversies suggests that careful consideration of scientific controversies suggests that careful consideration of scientific controversies, regardless of the role of evidence, is more important: that epistemic, political and social factors are almost always at stake. The manner in which the evidence is understood and, indeed, the disagreements over what should be considered evidence must be considered in the historical context. When the legislative struggle developed from 2006 to 2010, the gap widened further between what most AIDS activists considered morally necessary and empirically necessary, and the point of view of public health and medical communities. The New York State Association of County Health Officials in 200726 and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 200827 joined the New York State Medical Society to call for an end to the state of emergency over the state`s HIV testing. In 2007, the deeply divided and state-appointed AIDS Advisory Council voted by a vote of five to three in favour of a resolution stating: “The requirement for informed written consent for HIV testing in medical facilities should be lifted.” 28 In the United States, HIV testing is governed by a series of federal and regional laws, common law principles, constitution and various codes of ethics.
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